There are tens of millions of senior skilled workers in China, which restricts the development of the manufacturing industry. High level skilled workers are the key supporting force for the development of the real economy and an important embodiment of a country's comprehensive national strength. In recent years, with the continuous improvement of China's manufacturing industry, the desire for senior technicians has become increasingly urgent. But in reality, the gap of senior technicians is as high as tens of millions. This has not only become a major bottleneck in the transformation and upgrading of the manufacturing industry, but also restricted the practical improvement of the income level of workers and the realization of building a well-off society in an all-round way
structural labor shortage is becoming increasingly prominent
at the "China development high level forum 2017" hosted by the development research center of the State Council not long ago, Gou Taiming, founder and President of Foxconn Technology Group, raised such a problem: there is a big gap between today's college education and the practical operation in factories, and college students are generally poor in practical ability. Foxconn has recruited many college students, but they are not willing to work in grass-roots assembly lines, Does the government have any policy to encourage college students to go to the grass-roots level
this question of Gou Taiming reflects the problem of "shortage of skilled workers" that is commonly faced by manufacturing enterprises in China. This is also confirmed by the 2017 talent Blue Book China talent development report (No.4) recently released by the Social Science Literature Publishing House. The report shows that there are tens of millions of senior technicians in China. On the one hand, a large number of fresh graduates are hard to find. On the other hand, enterprises are thirsty for skilled workers, and the structural labor shortage is becoming more and more prominent
lishouzhen, member of the Party group of the all China Federation of trade unions, said that throughout the history of world industrial development, all industrial powers are big countries with technicians and technicians. In Japan, the proportion of senior technicians in the whole industrial workforce accounts for 40%, while in Germany it reaches 50%, while in China the proportion is only about 5%. There is a gap of nearly 10million senior technicians in the country. He believes that it is urgent for China to build a team of high-quality industrial workers and create more "big country craftsmen" in order to realize the magnificent transformation from a big manufacturing country to a powerful manufacturing country
the economic information daily found that "shortage of skilled workers" is common in many grassroots areas. In Sichuan, according to the statistics of the provincial human resources and social security department, the total number of skilled talents in the province is 6.8 million, including more than 1 million highly skilled talents. High end leading skilled talents in modern manufacturing and other fields are scarce; In Zhejiang, a survey conducted by Hangzhou Federation of industry and Commerce in 2016 on hundreds of enterprises in the city's construction industry and traditional manufacturing industry showed that 71.43% of enterprises reported a shortage of middle and senior skilled workers and a surplus of low skilled labor; In Tianjin, according to the feedback from the labor market, the supply and demand ratio of senior technical talents has reached about 1:10
according to the analysis of Wang Xiaochu, former Vice Minister of the Ministry of human resources and social security, in 2017, about 15million new workers entered the market in China, including 7.95 million college graduates. In addition, the employment pressure is still great due to the elimination of overcapacity and the transfer of rural labor. In this process, the structural contradictions such as the mismatch between the human resource structure and the demand of the employment market, and the maladjustment between the ability of the employed and the job requirements have become more prominent. One of the manifestations is the "shortage of skilled workers"
the development of the enterprise was hampered by the "shortage of skilled workers"
on June 6, 2015, the launching ceremony for the resumption of production of "Heilong" brand ice skates was held in Qiqihar Heilong ice skate Manufacturing Co., Ltd., which was the first resumption of production of China's most famous ice skate brand after years of silence. In 1951, the "black dragon" brand speed skates were exported to more than 20 countries and regions, such as Norway, Canada, Finland, etc. it is the "leader" in the domestic skate industry. However, due to poor management and poor system and mechanism, Heilong group went bankrupt in October, 2011, and Qiqihar Heilong ice skate Manufacturing Co., Ltd. stopped production the following year
with the vigorous development of China's winter sports driven by the Winter Olympic Games, the winter sports equipment market such as ice skates and snowboards has ushered in spring. Zhangqiu, the office director of Heilong ice skate Manufacturing Co., Ltd., said that after the resumption of production, the enterprise has a good market prospect, but the most prominent problem is the shortage of technicians. Because of this, the products of Heilong skates are mainly middle and low-end, while the skates used by domestic professional athletes are still mainly foreign high-end brands
according to Zhang Qiu, high-level design and manufacturing technicians are indispensable to enter the high-end markets at home and abroad. "We need technical personnel who understand both sports, machinery and aesthetics. It is difficult for newly graduated college graduates to win. It is mainly applicable to MDI or modified MDI systems with content greater than or equal to 50%." Hu Jun, deputy general manager of the company, said that the company is actively contacting colleges and universities in Qiqihar and other places, hoping to reserve certain technical talents, at least with a technical secondary school degree or above
Hangzhou shengdeyi plasticizing electromechanical Co., Ltd. is an enterprise engaged in the production of hardware tools, wires and cables. Zhang Yi, the general manager of the company, said that the monthly income provided by the company to the front-line technical staff is 3500 yuan to 5000 yuan, ensuring an annual increase of 15% and providing free dormitories. Even under such conditions, it is still difficult to recruit skilled workers. This year, the gap is expected to be as high as 3%, not only the text is not exquisite and standard, but also 0% intact. "Technicians can't be recruited, but the logistics handyman with little technical content is applied for every day." Zhang Yi said reluctantly
Jiaxing Jieshun Tourism Products Co., Ltd., which is engaged in the export of cleaning products, now has more than 800 employees. Yangxiaohua, manager of the management department, has the same feelings as Zhang Yi on the recruitment of skilled workers. He said that the company's employees are relatively stable, with an annual turnover rate of about 10%, and the most lacking is technical talents. "The wages of skilled workers in our enterprise are more than 4000 yuan, and they pay five insurances for their employees, including lunch. But even so, skilled workers are still hard to recruit. Those who are trained by themselves are easy to be 'poached' by other enterprises with high salaries." This also reflects the desire of the whole industry for high-level skilled workers
the relevant person in charge of Jiaxing labor and Social Security Supervision Detachment said that most enterprises with slightly higher technical requirements have a shortage of skilled workers. In order to find people, enterprises and enterprises do not hesitate to raise prices to rob people or "dig people", and "verbal promises" to raise wages have been made one after another, even leading to a series of labor disputes. According to him, under the "shortage of skilled workers", a brand-new employment method using clean and kerosene soaked cotton yarn has emerged: "outsourcing workers", that is, to package an assembly line and set up a relatively fixed team. The members are all super skilled workers, who will go wherever there is a shortage of people
the transformation and upgrading of the manufacturing industry is restricted
in order to change the situation that skilled workers are hard to find, some places rely on vocational colleges to actively carry out exploration
Hangzhou Xiaoshan technician college, which is under construction, has innovated the diversified school running mode of "one body, two wings and multiple platforms", and explored a full-time student training system focusing on cultivating technical and skilled talents with Five-Year "senior technician + college degree" and six-year "technician + undergraduate degree", and connecting secondary vocational education with higher vocational education. On this basis, the college is also building a complete system of "high skill + high education" adult higher education and on-the-job personnel skill training. During the internship, the students were snapped up by famous enterprises such as Xinsong robot, CSR group and Wanxiang Group
xuhongping, President of Hangzhou Xiaoshan technician college, said that vocational school education should change ideas and create "Trinity", that is, high skilled talents with noble character, rich contacts, solid professional theoretical foundation and exquisite professional operation skills. After the first-line training, they can become the technical backbone, team leader, factory director and even general manager of the enterprise, and still live a happy and decent life
before the end of the last graduation season, 324 sophomores in the Food Engineering Department of Heilongjiang Vocational College for nationalities were booked up in advance by large domestic food enterprises and successively entered the enterprises for paid internship. Jiangxude, the director of the Department, introduced that Heilongjiang Vocational College for nationalities, in conjunction with the national dairy engineering technology research center and large domestic dairy enterprises, has initiated the "1+1+1" talent training mode of universities, research institutes and enterprises in China. The college has advanced the professional foundation and professional skills education to the first academic year. There is a classroom upstairs and a workshop downstairs. The workshop is turned into a classroom. Teachers and students operate it by themselves to strengthen understanding
at present, transformation and upgrading and improving competitiveness are important tasks facing the entire manufacturing industry in China. Although there are many attempts to cultivate talents in vocational colleges, on the whole, due to the shortage of skilled workers, the improvement of the technical level of some enterprises has not been translated into products and productivity, resulting in the slow pace of transformation and upgrading
Li ShouZhen revealed that due to the low overall quality and skill level of industrial workers, China's labor productivity level is only 40% of the world average level, equivalent to 7.4% of the United States. In 2015, for example, China's unit labor output was US $7318, the world average was US $18487, while the US was US $98990. The wealth created by an American worker is equivalent to the wealth created by 13 Chinese workers, which has become one of the main reasons why China's manufacturing industry is "big but not strong"
"although the state has introduced a series of measures to promote the development of Vocational Education in recent years, it still can not keep up with the demand of industrial upgrading for high skilled talents." Zhaoyu, chief technician of automobile assembly and adjustment of Beijing Benz Automobile Co., Ltd., frankly said that the shortage of highly skilled talents is still a prominent problem in the development of China's high-end manufacturing industry, which restricts the formation of more world-class "Chinese brands" and the realization of the strategic goal of made in China 2025
he said that for some time, it has been difficult for enterprises to recruit graduates from high-quality vocational colleges suitable for their own development requirements. Many graduates still need to be re cultivated and trained by enterprises after work, which also directly affects the salary and promotion space of front-line employees, resulting in difficulty in stabilizing the overall staff